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Kismet - Le Tutorial Facile - Protocole 802.11

Kismet 802.11
Dernière modif: Mar 26 2008


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802.11 est un set de standard pour le WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network / Réseau local sans fils) définissant les données wireless. Il est pour le moment principalement composé de trois protocoles: 802.11a, 802.11b et 802.11g.
Un nouveau protocole appelé 802.11n devrait sortir en 2009. Il est déjà implémenté sur quelques cartes wireless et point d'accès en état brouillon (draft state).

Protocole Date de sortie Débit max [Mbit/s] Fréquence [GHz]
802.11a 2001 54 5
802.11b 1999 11 2.4
802.11g 2003 54 2.4
802.11n 2009? 300 5 et/ou 2.4
Notez qu'il n'est jamais possible d'atteindre le débit maximum indiqué par les constructeurs. Dans des conditions optimales, seul la moitié peut être atteinte pour 802.11a/b/g et un tiers pour 802.11n.

Il n'est pas permis de transmettre des données wireless à n'importe quelle fréquence , seul certaines étendues au alentour de 2.4 et 5 GHz sont autorisées pour ne pas entrer en conflit avec d'autres type d'ondes comme celles utilisées pour la téléphonie mobile (GSM) ou la radio. D'autres règles sont imposées aux matériels wireless comme la puissance maximale d'émission.

Les données peuvent être transmises à travers treize canaux. Dans un environnement composé de plusieurs points d'accès, le numéro de canal doit être minutieusement choisi sur chaque point d'accès pour éviter des interférence d'onde menant à un bas début de transmission pour les utilisateurs du wireless.

Les équipements wireless clients communiquent en deux modes:
- Infrastructure:
- Ad-Hoc

Le mode "infrastructure" est utilisé quand un client wireless comme un portable est connecté à une station wireless appelé point d'accès (access point). Ce mode est utilisé dans la plupart des cas. Le mode "Ad-Hoc" est utilisé quand deux hôtes veulent communiquer directement entre eux sans passer par un point d'accès.



Les protocoles 802.11 opèrent au niveau de la couche 2 du modèle OSI et sont composés de trois types de trames wireless:
- Trames de contrôle (Control frames): aide à la délivrance des trames de données.
- Trames de gestion (Management frames): Etablit et maintient les communications.
- Trames de données (Data frames): Transport des données.

Pressez la touche "p" dans l'interface principale de Kismet pour voir les trames wireless capturées.

Trames de gestion (Management frames): (Mx)

Kismet
Ma
MA
Mr
MR
Mp
MP
MB
MM
MD
Mt
MT
M?
Description
Association request
Association response
Reassociation request
Reassociation response
Probe request
Probe response (Voir exemple)
Beacon (Voir exemple)
ATIM
Disassociation
Authentication
Deauthentication
Unknown management frame
Trames de contrôle (Control frame): (Voir exemple)

Kismet
Pt
PT
PA
Pc
PC
P?
Description
Request to send
Clear to send
Data Ack
CF End
CF End+Ack
Unknown phy frame
Trames de données: (Voir exemple)

Kismet
DD
Dc
Dp
DP
DN
Da
PA
D?
Description
Data frame
Data+CF+ACK
Data+CF+Poll
Data+CF+ACK+Poll
Data Null
CF Ack
CF Ack+Poll
Unknown data frame
Consultez le site web de wi-fiplanet pour obtenir des détails à propos de chaque type de trame.


Voici des exemples de trames de control, données et gestion.

1.  Trame de contrôle
2.  Trame de donnée
3.1 Trame de gestion (Probe Response)
3.2 Trame de gestion (Beacon)


1. Trame de contrôle - Acknowledgement

Capture Wireshark

wireshark trame de controle wireless

Capture Tshark.

Frame 4 (10 bytes on wire, 10 bytes captured)
  Arrival Time: Feb 5, 2008 19:27:18.873416000
  [Time delta from previous captured frame: 0.000003000 seconds]
  [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 0.000003000 seconds]
  [Time since reference or first frame: 0.055028000 seconds]
  Frame Number: 4
  Frame Length: 10 bytes
  Capture Length: 10 bytes
  [Frame is marked: False]
  [Protocols in frame: wlan]
IEEE 802.11
  Type/Subtype: Acknowledgement (0x1d)
  Frame Control: 0x00D4 (Normal)
    Version: 0
    Type: Control frame (1)
    Subtype: 13
    Flags: 0x0
      DS status: Not leaving DS or network is operating in AD-HOC mode (To DS: 0 From DS: 0) (0x00)
      .... .0.. = More Fragments: This is the last fragment
      .... 0... = Retry: Frame is not being retransmitted
      ...0 .... = PWR MGT: STA will stay up
      ..0. .... = More Data: No data buffered
      .0.. .... = Protected flag: Data is not protected
      0... .... = Order flag: Not strictly ordered
  Duration: 0
  Receiver address: Aironet_91:91:91 (00:40:96:91:91:91)
Haut de la page     Menu trames



2. Trame de données

Capture Wireshark

wireshark trames de données wireless

Capture Tshark

Frame 11 (82 bytes on wire, 82 bytes captured)
  Arrival Time: Feb 5, 2008 19:27:18.937491000
  [Time delta from previous captured frame: 0.000029000 seconds]
  [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 0.000029000 seconds]
  [Time since reference or first frame: 0.119103000 seconds]
  Frame Number: 11
  Frame Length: 82 bytes
  Capture Length: 82 bytes
  [Frame is marked: False]
  [Protocols in frame: wlan:data]
IEEE 802.11
  Type/Subtype: QoS Data (0x28)
  Frame Control: 0x4188 (Normal)
    Version: 0
    Type: Data frame (2)
    Subtype: 8
    Flags: 0x41
      DS status: Frame from STA to DS via an AP (To DS: 1 From DS: 0) (0x01)
      .... .0.. = More Fragments: This is the last fragment
      .... 0... = Retry: Frame is not being retransmitted
      ...0 .... = PWR MGT: STA will stay up
      ..0. .... = More Data: No data buffered
      .1.. .... = Protected flag: Data is not protected
      0... .... = Order flag: Not strictly ordered
  Duration: 44
  BSS Id: Cisco_50:50:50 (00:1c:0e:50:50:50)
  Source address: Aironet_91:91:91 (00:40:96:91:91:91)
  Destination address: 01:00:5e:fa:fa:fa (01:00:5e:fa:fa:fa)
  Fragment number: 0
  Sequence number: 3847
  QoS Control
    Priority: 0 (Best Effort) (Best Effort)
    Ack Policy: Normal Ack (0x00)
    Payload Type: MSDU
    Transmit Opportunity (TXOP) Limit Requested: 0x00
  CCMP parameters
    CCMP Ext. Initialization Vector: 0x000000001469
    Key Index: 0
Data (48 bytes)
 
0000 eb 4d b5 5b 64 db ba 0b 54 4f 76 2b 05 00 a3 eb .M.[d...TOv+....
0010 ce 67 3d e8 68 30 6f 7a 5a 13 cc 38 89 a5 46 84 .g=.h0ozZ..8..F.
0020 e6 eb 5f 46 33 4b 2a 31 c1 98 3b 56 2d ae 61 24 .._F3K*1..;V-.a$
Haut de la page     Menu trames



3.1 Trame de gestion (Probe response)

Les clients wireless envoient des "probe request" pour déterminer quels points d'accès sont atteignables. Les point d'accès répondent aux clients avec des informations sur leur capacités comme le nom du réseau (SSID), les débits supportés, les noms et constructeur de l'AP, etc ... .
Si le point d'accès est configuré pour
ne pas broadcaster son SSID, il va répondre à une "probe request" avec un champ SSID blanc.

Capture Wireshark

wireshark wireless trame de management probe  response

Capture Tshark

Frame 20275 (216 bytes on wire, 216 bytes captured)
  Arrival Time: Feb 5, 2008 19:37:51.688023000
  [Time delta from previous captured frame: 0.002035000 seconds]
  [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 0.002035000 seconds]
  [Time since reference or first frame: 632.869635000 seconds]
  Frame Number: 20275
  Frame Length: 216 bytes
  Capture Length: 216 bytes
  [Frame is marked: False]
  [Protocols in frame: wlan]
IEEE 802.11
  Type/Subtype: Probe Response (0x05)
  Frame Control: 0x0050 (Normal)
    Version: 0
    Type: Management frame (0)
    Subtype: 5
    Flags: 0x0
      DS status: Not leaving DS or network is operating in AD-HOC mode (To DS: 0 From DS: 0) (0x00)
      .... .0.. = More Fragments: This is the last fragment
      .... 0... = Retry: Frame is not being retransmitted
      ...0 .... = PWR MGT: STA will stay up
      ..0. .... = More Data: No data buffered
      .0.. .... = Protected flag: Data is not protected
      0... .... = Order flag: Not strictly ordered
  Duration: 314
  Destination address: HonHaiPr_28:28:28 (00:1c:26:28:28:28)
  Source address: Cisco_c0:c0:c0 (00:0f:24:c0:c0:c0)
  BSS Id: Cisco_c0:c0:c0 (00:0f:24:c0:c0:c0)
  Fragment number: 0
  Sequence number: 1462
IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN management frame
  Fixed parameters (12 bytes)
    Timestamp: 0x00000C1BD675BB4C
    Beacon Interval: 0.102400 [Seconds]
    Capability Information: 0x0431
      .... .... .... ...1 = ESS capabilities: Transmitter is an AP
      .... .... .... ..0. = IBSS status: Transmitter belongs to a BSS
      .... ..0. .... 00.. = CFP participation capabilities: No point coordinator at AP (0x0000)
      .... .... ...1 .... = Privacy: AP/STA can support WEP
      .... .... ..1. .... = Short Preamble: Short preamble allowed
      .... .... .0.. .... = PBCC: PBCC modulation not allowed
      .... .... 0... .... = Short Slot Time: Short slot time in use
      .... ...0 .... .... = Spectrum Management: dot11SpectrumManagementRequired FALSE
      .... .1.. .... .... = PWR MGT: STA will stay up
      .... 0... .... .... = Automatic Power Save Delivery: apsd not implemented
      ..0. .... .... .... = DSSS-OFDM: DSSS-OFDM modulation not allowed
      .0.. .... .... .... = Delayed Block Ack: delayed block ack not implemented
      0... .... .... .... = Immediate Block Ack: immediate block ack not implemented
  Tagged parameters (180 bytes)
    SSID parameter set: "OPENMANIAK"
      Tag Number: 0 (SSID parameter set)
      Tag length: 11
      Tag interpretation: OPENMANIAK
    Supported Rates: 1.0(B) 2.0(B) 5.5(B) 6.0 9.0 11.0(B) 12.0 18.0
      Tag Number: 1 (Supported Rates)
      Tag length: 8
      Tag interpretation: Supported rates: 1.0(B) 2.0(B) 5.5(B) 6.0 9.0 11.0(B) 12.0 18.0 [Mbit/sec]
    DS Parameter set: Current Channel: 6
      Tag Number: 3 (DS Parameter set)
      Tag length: 1
      Tag interpretation: Current Channel: 6
    ERP Information: no Non-ERP STAs, use protection, short or long preambles
      Tag Number: 42 (ERP Information)
      Tag length: 1
      Tag interpretation: ERP info: 0x2 (no Non-ERP STAs, use protection, short or long preambles)
    RSN Information
      Tag Number: 48 (RSN Information)
      Tag length: 20
      Tag interpretation: RSN IE, version 1
      Tag interpretation: Multicast cipher suite: TKIP
      Tag interpretation: # of unicast cipher suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: Unicast cipher suite 1: AES (CCM)
      Tag interpretation: # of auth key management suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: auth key management suite 1: WPA
      RSN Capabilities: 0x0028
      .... .... .... ...0 = RSN Pre-Auth capabilities: Transmitter does not support pre-authentication
      .... .... .... ..0. = RSN No Pairwise capabilities: Transmitter can support WEP default key 0 simultaneously with Pairwise key
      .... .... .... 10.. = RSN PTKSA Replay Counter capabilities: 4 replay counters per PTKSA/GTKSA/STAKeySA (0x0002)
      .... .... ..10 .... = RSN GTKSA Replay Counter capabilities: 4 replay counters per PTKSA/GTKSA/STAKeySA (0x0002)
    Vendor Specific: WPA
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 24
      Tag interpretation: WPA IE, type 1, version 1
      Tag interpretation: Multicast cipher suite: TKIP
      Tag interpretation: # of unicast cipher suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: Unicast cipher suite 1: TKIP
      Tag interpretation: # of auth key management suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: auth key management suite 1: WPA
      Tag interpretation: Not interpreted
    Extended Supported Rates: 24.0 36.0 48.0 54.0
      Tag Number: 50 (Extended Supported Rates)
      Tag length: 4
      Tag interpretation: Supported rates: 24.0 36.0 48.0 54.0 [Mbit/sec]
    Cisco Unknown 1 + Device Name
      Tag Number: 133 (Cisco Unknown 1 + Device Name)
      Tag length: 30
      Tag interpretation: Unknown + Name: AP01 #Clients: 0
    Vendor Specific: Aironet Unknown
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 6
      Aironet IE type: Unknown (1)
      Aironet IE data: 0100
    Vendor Specific: Aironet CCX version = 3
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 5
      Aironet IE type: CCX version (3)
      Aironet IE CCX version?: 3
    Vendor Specific: Aironet Qos
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 22
      Aironet IE type: Qos (4)
      Aironet IE QoS unknown 1: 0x00
      Aironet IE QoS paramset: 2
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 0 (Best Effort), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 7, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 10, TXOP 0
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 1 (Background), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 3, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 10, TXOP 0
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 2 (Video), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 3, ECWmax 4, TXOP 0
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 3 (Voice), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 2, ECWmax 3, TXOP 0
    Vendor Specific: WME
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 24
      Tag interpretation: WME PE: type 2, subtype 1, version 1, parameter set 2
     

Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 0 (Best Effort), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 3, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 4, TXOP 0

      Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 1 (Background), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 7, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 4, TXOP 0
      Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 2 (Video), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 3, ECWmax 3, TXOP 94
      Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 3 (Voice), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 2, ECWmax 2, TXOP 47
Haut de la page     Menu trames



3.2 Trame de gestion - Beacon

Les trames beacon sont envoyées de manière régulière par les points d'accès pour aider les clients wireless à les identifier.

Le corps des trames beacon fournissent les mêmes informations que celles affichées dans une "probe response" comme le nom du réseau (SSID), les débits supportés, les noms et constructeur de l'AP, etc ... .

Dans un réseau wireless inactif, les frames beacon sont dominantes par rapport aux autres trafics.
Si le point d'accès n'est pas configuré pour broadcaster son SSID, il va envoyer des beacons avec un champ SSID blanc comme dans la capture ci-dessous

Capture Wireshark

wireshark wireless trame de gestion beacon

Capture Tshark

Frame 21 (212 bytes on wire, 212 bytes captured)
  Arrival Time: Feb 5, 2008 19:27:19.309692000
  [Time delta from previous captured frame: 0.007605000 seconds]
  [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 0.007605000 seconds]
  [Time since reference or first frame: 0.491304000 seconds]
  Frame Number: 21
  Frame Length: 212 bytes
  Capture Length: 212 bytes
  [Frame is marked: False]
  [Protocols in frame: wlan]
IEEE 802.11
  Type/Subtype: Beacon frame (0x08)
  Frame Control: 0x0080 (Normal)
    Version: 0
    Type: Management frame (0)
    Subtype: 8
    Flags: 0x0
      DS status: Not leaving DS or network is operating in AD-HOC mode (To DS: 0 From DS: 0) (0x00)
      .... .0.. = More Fragments: This is the last fragment
      .... 0... = Retry: Frame is not being retransmitted
      ...0 .... = PWR MGT: STA will stay up
      ..0. .... = More Data: No data buffered
      .0.. .... = Protected flag: Data is not protected
      0... .... = Order flag: Not strictly ordered
  Duration: 0
  Destination address: Broadcast (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff)
  Source address: Cisco_b0:b0:b0 (00:14:f2:b0:b0:b0)
  BSS Id: Cisco_b0:b0:b0 (00:14:f2:b0:b0:b0)
  Fragment number: 0
  Sequence number: 3348
IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN management frame
  Fixed parameters (12 bytes)
    Timestamp: 0x00000C1BD675BB4C
    Beacon Interval: 0.102400 [Seconds]
    Capability Information: 0x0431
      .... .... .... ...1 = ESS capabilities: Transmitter is an AP
      .... .... .... ..0. = IBSS status: Transmitter belongs to a BSS
      .... ..0. .... 00.. = CFP participation capabilities: No point coordinator at AP (0x0000)
      .... .... ...1 .... = Privacy: AP/STA can support WEP
      .... .... ..1. .... = Short Preamble: Short preamble allowed
      .... .... .0.. .... = PBCC: PBCC modulation not allowed
      .... .... 0... .... = Short Slot Time: Short slot time in use
      .... ...0 .... .... = Spectrum Management: dot11SpectrumManagementRequired FALSE
      .... .1.. .... .... = PWR MGT: STA will stay up
      .... 0... .... .... = Automatic Power Save Delivery: apsd not implemented
      ..0. .... .... .... = DSSS-OFDM: DSSS-OFDM modulation not allowed
      .0.. .... .... .... = Delayed Block Ack: delayed block ack not implemented
      0... .... .... .... = Immediate Block Ack: immediate block ack not implemented
  Tagged parameters (176 bytes)
    SSID parameter set: "\000"
      Tag Number: 0 (SSID parameter set)
      Tag length: 1
      Tag interpretation:
    Supported Rates: 1.0(B) 2.0(B) 5.5(B) 6.0 9.0 11.0(B) 12.0 18.0
      Tag Number: 1 (Supported Rates)
      Tag length: 8
      Tag interpretation: Supported rates: 1.0(B) 2.0(B) 5.5(B) 6.0 9.0 11.0(B) 12.0 18.0 [Mbit/sec]
    DS Parameter set: Current Channel: 11
      Tag Number: 3 (DS Parameter set)
      Tag length: 1
      Tag interpretation: Current Channel: 11
    Traffic Indication Map (TIM): DTIM 0 of 2 bitmap empty
      Tag Number: 5 (Traffic Indication Map (TIM))
      TIM length: 4
      DTIM count: 0
      DTIM period: 2
      Bitmap Control: 0x00 (mcast:0, bitmap offset 0)
    ERP Information: no Non-ERP STAs, do not use protection, short or long preambles
      Tag Number: 42 (ERP Information)
      Tag length: 1
      Tag interpretation: ERP info: 0x0 (no Non-ERP STAs, do not use protection, short or long preambles)
    RSN Information
      Tag Number: 48 (RSN Information)
      Tag length: 20
      Tag interpretation: RSN IE, version 1
      Tag interpretation: Multicast cipher suite: TKIP
      Tag interpretation: # of unicast cipher suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: Unicast cipher suite 1: AES (CCM)
      Tag interpretation: # of auth key management suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: auth key management suite 1: WPA
      RSN Capabilities: 0x0028
      .... .... .... ...0 = RSN Pre-Auth capabilities: Transmitter does not support pre-authentication
      .... .... .... ..0. = RSN No Pairwise capabilities: Transmitter can support WEP default key 0 simultaneously with Pairwise key
      .... .... .... 10.. = RSN PTKSA Replay Counter capabilities: 4 replay counters per PTKSA/GTKSA/STAKeySA (0x0002)
      .... .... ..10 .... = RSN GTKSA Replay Counter capabilities: 4 replay counters per PTKSA/GTKSA/STAKeySA (0x0002)
    Vendor Specific: WPA
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 24
      Tag interpretation: WPA IE, type 1, version 1
      Tag interpretation: Multicast cipher suite: TKIP
      Tag interpretation: # of unicast cipher suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: Unicast cipher suite 1: TKIP
      Tag interpretation: # of auth key management suites: 1
      Tag interpretation: auth key management suite 1: WPA
      Tag interpretation: Not interpreted
    Extended Supported Rates: 24.0 36.0 48.0 54.0
      Tag Number: 50 (Extended Supported Rates)
      Tag length: 4
      Tag interpretation: Supported rates: 24.0 36.0 48.0 54.0 [Mbit/sec]
    Cisco Unknown 1 + Device Name
      Tag Number: 133 (Cisco Unknown 1 + Device Name)
      Tag length: 30
      Tag interpretation: Unknown + Name: AP02 #Clients: 1
    Vendor Specific: Aironet Unknown
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 6
      Aironet IE type: Unknown (1)
      Aironet IE data: 0100
    Vendor Specific: Aironet CCX version = 3
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 5
      Aironet IE type: CCX version (3)
      Aironet IE CCX version?: 3
    Vendor Specific: Aironet Qos
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 22
      Aironet IE type: Qos (4)
      Aironet IE QoS unknown 1: 0x00
      Aironet IE QoS paramset: 2
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 0 (Best Effort), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 7, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 10, TXOP 0
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 1 (Background), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 3, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 10, TXOP 0
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 2 (Video), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 3, ECWmax 4, TXOP 0
      CCX QoS Parameters??: ACI 3 (Voice), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 2, ECWmax 3, TXOP 0
    Vendor Specific: WME
      Tag Number: 221 (Vendor Specific)
      Tag length: 24
      Tag interpretation: WME PE: type 2, subtype 1, version 1, parameter set 2
     

Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 0 (Best Effort), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 3, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 4, TXOP 0

      Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 1 (Background), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 7, ECWmin 4, ECWmax 4, TXOP 0
      Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 2 (Video), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 3, ECWmax 3, TXOP 94
      Tag interpretation: WME AC Parameters: ACI 3 (Voice), Admission Control not Mandatory, AIFSN 2, ECWmin 2, ECWmax 2, TXOP 47

Haut de la page     Menu trames